Programming Environments for Novices "Each novice programming environment (or family of environments) is attempting to answer the question, "What makes programming hard?" Each answer to that question implies a family of environments that address the concern with a set of solutions. Each environment discussed in this chapter attempts to use several of these answers to make programming easier for novices."
Discusses environments/languages such as Logo, Moose, Smalltalk, Squeak, Prolog and the very good ToonTalk.
There was also a recent interview with Alan Kay in HP's Business View magazine.